DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/24999490-2021-01-02

I.I. Evsyukova D.O. Ott Research Institute of Obstetrics, Gynecology ad Reproductology, Russian Federation, 199034, Mendeleevskaya line 3, Saint-Petersburg E-mail: [email protected]

The review presents literature data that reveal the mechanism of mutual influence of microbiota and melatonin in the unified system «mother–placenta–fetus». There is shown the variety of functions performed by the microbiota, provided by the presence of communications between different bacterial ecosystems, their balanced interaction, as well as the key role of melatonin in preserving the body’s homeostasis through the control of the composition and activity of the microbiome. The existence of a circadian rhythm within commensal bacteria is a response to an endocrine signal – melatonin, which is regulated by the host’s circadian clock. The results of experimental and clinical studies indicating changes in the composition of intestinal, placental, and vaginal microbiota during pregnancy are presented. The pattern of restructuring of the composition of the microbiome is determined by a significant increase in melatonin production in healthy pregnant women, which confirms its key role in maintaining homeostasis by controlling the composition and functioning of the microbiome, as well as creating optimal conditions for pregnancy outcome for mother and fetus. When the circadian production of melatonin is disrupted, a pregnant woman experiences microbiota dysbiosis and the development of complications in the unified mother–placenta–fetus system. Predicting and preventing these disorders is the use of preventive therapy with melatonin in these patients at the family planning stage.
microbiota, melatonin, circadian system, pregnancy, placenta, fetus

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