M. Gonzalgo (1), G. Ishkhanova (2)
1 -Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, USA, 94305, California, Stanford;
2 -NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, USA, 94035, California

Introduction.Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder is the second most common malignancy of the genitourinary tract. Cystoscopy and urine cytology are the traditional most used techniques for diagnosis and surveillance of superficial bladder cancer. Urinecytology is specific for diagnosis of bladder cancer but sensitivity results not high, particularly in low-grade disease. A new diagnostic marker for urothelial carcinoma is needed to avoid painful cystoscopy during the initial diagnosis and follow-up period. However, the current urine markers are useless because of the low sensitivities and specificities for bladder cancer detection. Voided urine can be easilyobtained and therefore additional diagnostic urine test would be ideal for screening or follow-up of transitional cell carcinoma. The aim of the study.Our study focused on the evaluation of urinary microRNA markers that hold promise as non-invasive adjuncts to conventional diagnostic. Methods. MicroRNA (miRNA) are involved in cancer development and progression, acting as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Results. We profiled the expression of unique human miRNAs in normal and bladder tumor samples. Expression levels were measured by gene-specific RT2 qPCR Primer Assays optimized for simultaneous use in the PCR Array System. Conclusion. We identified several differentially expressed miRNAs between normal and cancer urine samples. We speculate that miR-126, mir-R-96, miR-196a, miR-183 and miR-200c can be used as biomarkers for bladder cancer, using urine as non-invasive diagnostic tools. Our results in some extent coincide with data obtained by other researchers. The findings reported here indicate that these miRNAs are differentially regulated in bladder cancer and may form a basis for clinical delivery new biomarkers for bladder cancer.
bladder cancer, microRNA, gene expression