ФОРМИРОВАНИЕ И ДЕГРАДАЦИЯ БИОПЛЕНОК: МОЛЕКУЛЯРНО-КЛЕТОЧНЫЕ МЕХАНИЗМЫ

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/24999490-2020-05-03

Т.И. Хомякова(1), кандидат медицинских наук, М.Н. Терешин(2), Р.С. Есипов(2), доктор химических наук, А.Д. Магомедова(1), Г.В. Козловская(1), Ю.Е. Козловский(1), кандидат биологических наук, Ю.Н. Хомяков(3), доктор биологических наук, кандидат медицинских наук 1-ФГБНУ «Научно исследовательский институт морфологии человека», Российская Федерация, 117418, Москва, ул. Цюрупы, д. 3; 2-ФГБУН «Институт биоорганической химии им. академиков М.М. Шемякина и Ю.А. Овчинникова» РАН, Российская Федерация, 117437, Москва, ул. Миклухо-Маклая, 16/10, к. 1; 3-ФКУЗ «Противочумный центр» Роспотребнадзора, Российская Федерация, 127490, Москва, ул. Мусоргского, д. 4 E-mail: tatkhom@yandex.ru

Сообщества микроорганизмов – это совокупность видов, которые, взаимодействуя друг с другом, занимают одну и ту же нишу, где могут происходить конкурентные либо взаимовыгодные отношения. Биопленки – один из типов микробных сообществ, изучение которых стало актуально в последние 20 лет. Особую проблему представляет повышение антибиотикрезистентности бактерий при их переходе от планктонного образа существования к биопленке. Целью данного обзора является анализ современных представлений о механизмах формирования биопленок, межклеточного взаимодействия при формировании многоклеточных бактериальных агрегатов, первичной адгезии, взаимоотношении бактерий в зрелых биопленках, при дисперсии биопленок и распространении в организме. Приводятся данные о роли сигнальных взаимодействий между микроорганизмами, бактериальных G-белков и микро-РНК в жизненном цикле биопленок. Описаны основные компоненты внеклеточного матрикса и представлены молекулярно-клеточные механизмы их продукции микроорганизмами. Отдельный раздел описывает результаты собственных исследований авторов, посвященных разработке эффективно действующих бактерий-пробиотиков, способных формировать биопленки на стенках слизистой толстой кишки. Предлагается методика скрининга штаммов потенциальных пробиотиков как потенциальных протекторов и ингибиторов формирования биопленки путем конкурентного взаимодействия с патогенами на образующихся местах адгезии.
Ключевые слова: 
пробиотики, внеклеточный матрикс

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