Влияние постишемических физических нагрузок на клеточные ансамбли головного мозга при церебральной гипоперфузии

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/24999490-2021-05-01

В.В. Криштоп(1), Т.А. Румянцева(2), В.Г. Никонорова(3) 1-ФГАОУ ВО «Национальный исследовательский университет ИТМО», Российская Федерация, 191024, Санкт-Петербург, Ломоносова, д. 9; 2-ФГБОУ ВО «Ярославский государственный медицинский университет», Российская Федерация, 153000, Ярославль, Революционная улица, д. 5; 3-ФГБОУ ВО «Ивановская государственная сельскохозяйственная академия им. Д.К. Беляева», Российская Федерация, 153012, Иваново, ул. Советская, д. 45 E-mail: chrishtop@scamt-itmo.ru

Церебральная гипоперфузия лежит в основе широкого ряда заболеваний: инсульта, болезни Альцгеймера, травмы головного мозга и др. Сосудистая деменция, являющаяся эквивалентом церебральной гипоперфузии – одно из наиболее распространенных когнитивных расстройств у пожилых людей после болезни Альцгеймера. Физическая нагрузка является неотъемлемым компонентом реабилитационных мероприятий при ишемическом инсульте и сосудистой деменции – широко распространенных, социально важных заболеваниях. Цель обзора – обобщить современные данные о клеточных механизмах, лежащих в основе влияния физических нагрузок вне парадигмы обогащенной среды, при экспериментальной церебральной гипоксии. Материалами послужили результаты соответствующих исследований отечественных и зарубежных авторов и собственные опубликованные данные за последние 30 лет, с 1990 по 2020 г. В статье обобщены современные данные, демонстрирующие влияние физической нагрузки при церебральной гипоперфузии преимущественно в хроническую фазу модели двусторонней окклюзии общих сонных артерий, как адекватной модели церебральной гипоперфузии. Рассмотрены следующие мишени физической нагрузки: нейрогенез, нейрональный апоптоз, нейротрофины, BDNF, IGF-I, VEGF, синаптофизин, NO-опосредованные эффекты, оксидантный стресс, ангиогенез, цереброваскулярную реактивность, структуры гематоэнцефалического барьера, эндотелий, лейкоциты острой фазы воспаления, астроциты, олигодендроглиоциты, фенотип микроглии.

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