Ye.A. Kashukh, V.T. Ivashkin
I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Pogodinskaya str., 1, Moscow, Russian Federation, 119991
E-mail: katrin1.10 @mail.ru

In the presented review a new potential risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease such as microflora of the human gastrointestinal tract is considered. The modern concept of lipid metabolism and its effects on human health outlining the basic theory of atherosclerosis development in a historical context is described in detail. The data about inflammatory proteins produced by oral cavity bacteria and contributing to the development of atherosclerosis as well as the damage of myocardium are provided. Particular attention is given to the small intestine microflora metabolism and its participation in the acceleration of the development of atherosclerosis. Convincing evidence of the impact of intestinal bacteria on such important factors of the cardiovascular risk, as obesity, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia are shown. There are also described presently known such proatherogenic molecules as trimethylamine-N-oxide and gamma-butyrobetaine. Their connection with the protracted cardiovascular risk, potential pathways and mechanisms of these molecules formation involving intestinal microflora is presented. Substances serving as precursors of proatherogenic molecules are described and their role in nutrition is obtained. Finally there is presented information about association of trimethylamine-N-oxide with increased angiotensin II concentrations and the development of hypertension and chronic heart failure.
atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, microbiome, arterial hypertension trimethylamine-N-oxide, trimethylamine