DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/24999490-2022-04-03

А.V. Igrunkova(1), Y.М. Valieva(1), А.М. Kalinichenko(1), А.V. Kurkov(1), K.Yu. Popova(1), D.Yu. Shestakov(2), V.A. Zaborova(1)
1-Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Trubetskay str., 8–2, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation;
2-State Medical Institution Moscow Clinical Research Center named after A.S. Loginov DZM,
highway Enthusiasts, 86, Moscow, 111123, Russian Federation

Cellular senescence is a reaction of cells to damage, which consists in a full stop of the cell cycle, changes of the signaling pathways and secretory activity associated with aging. Regardless the inducing factor, cellular aging of different types have a similar morphological and molecular profile. The purpose of this review was to systematize scientific data on the molecular and morphological mechanisms of cellular aging. Material and methods: the main foreign and domestic sources were analyzed using the PubMed/Medline, RSCI/elibrary databases. Conclusion: The short-term persistence of biologically active substances, secreted by senescent cells, promote cell proliferation and regeneration of organs and tissues. The long-term presence of these cells, on the contrary, contributes to the inhibition of cell proliferation and synthetic activity, maintaining the pro-inflammatory environment. It negatively affects the structure and function of tissues and leads to chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, osteoarthritis and others, as well as oncology. The senescent cells detection in tissues is difficult due to the lack of morphologic features of these cells in standard light microscopy. It requires complex histochemical and immunohistochemical studies with several antibodies. Nowadays, various methods of regulating the number and secretory activity of senescence cells are studied. Two main directions include senolytic and senomorphic therapy. The first is aimed at the selective initiation of apoptosis in senescent cells, the second is aimed at reducing the synthetic activity in them. Different types of cellular senescence have similar morphological, biochemical and molecular features and pronounced effect on tissue structures. Deepening the knowledge about cellular senescence will allow developing universal pathogenetic drugs for the prevention and treatment of many diseases with persistence of cells with the senescent phenotype.
cellular senescence, regeneration

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