1-FGBU “St. Petersburg Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation,
Ligovsky Ave., 2–4, St. Petersburg, 191036, Russian Federation;
2-ANNO VO Research Center "St. Petersburg Institute of Bioregulation and Gerontology",
Dynamo Ave., 3, St. Petersburg, 197110, Russian Federation;
3-Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “First St. Petersburg State
Medical University named after. I.P. Pavlova" Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation,
st. Leo Tolstoy, 6–8, St. Petersburg, 197022, Russian Federation;
4-FGBOU HE "St. Petersburg State University", Universitetskaya nab., 7/9, St. Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation;
5-FGBOU HE "St. Petersburg State Pediatric Medical University of the Ministry of Health of Russia",
st. Litovskaya, 2, St. Petersburg, 194100, Russian Federation

Introduction. Tuberculosis is a socially significant disease, which is based on chronic granulomatous inflammation with the formation of fibrosis. The signaling molecules CD44 and ICAM-1 play an important role in the process of migration of immune cells from the bloodstream to the site of inflammation. CD44 is an integral cellular glycoprotein that plays an important role in cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion and migration. The strength of this interaction is ensured by the interaction of ICAM-1 with the LFA-1 antigen located on the surface of leukocytes. Thus, studying the expression levels of CD44 and ICAM-1 during the development of the tuberculosis process will expand our understanding of the involvement of immune cells in the pathomorphism of the disease. The purpose of the study was to study the expression of markers of migration and adhesion of lymphocytes CD44 and ICAM-1 at various degrees of inflammatory activity in pulmonary tuberculoma. Methods. The object of the study was tuberculoma, as a clinical form of pulmonary tuberculosis. Using immunohistochemistry and morphometry, the relative expression area of the CD44 and ICAM-1 proteins was determined depending on the degree of activity of the tuberculosis process. Results. The level of relative expression of ICAM-1 in granulomas did not differ significantly from the degree of activity of the tuberculosis process. A decrease in the level of CD44 expression was observed with the 4th degree of activity of the tuberculosis process (widespread active inflammatory changes with beginning progression). Conclusion. The expression level of ICAM-1 remained constant at all stages of tuberculoma pathomorphosis, while the CD44 expression level was significantly associated with the pathomorphosis of the disease, reaching minimum values at the 4th degree of activity of the pathological process. The data obtained indicate the constant involvement of ICAM-1 in the mechanisms of cell adhesion at all stages of granuloma formation. Low levels of CD44 expression in tuberculomas with grade 4 inflammatory changes reflect the cessation of migration of committed immune cells to the site of inflammation, thereby providing conditions for either stabilization of the pathological process by fibrosis of the granuloma, or, conversely, for the progression of the inflammatory process.
CD44, ICAM-1, lymphocyte migration, tuberculosis, degree of activity, tuberculoma

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