PD-1 PATH: BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE, CLINICAL APPLICATION, AND EXISTING PROBLEMS

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/24999490-2019-01-01

N.E. Kushlinskii(1), M.V. Fridman(2), A.A. Morozov(3), A.I. Chertkova(1), E.S. Gershtein(1), Z.G. Kadagidze(1) 1-N.N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology, Kashirskoye shosse, 24, Moscow, 115478, Russian Federation; 2-N.I. Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Gubkina Str., 3, Moscow, 117971, Russian Federation; 3-M.F. Vladimirsky Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute, Shchepkina Str., 61/2, b. 1, Moscow, 129110, Russian Federation E-mail: biochimia@yandex.ru

The review is devoted to the studies of immune check-point (programmed death) molecules – PD-1 receptor and its ligands PD-L1 and PD-L2, which play an important role in the regulation of immune response. Special attention is paid to soluble (s) forms of PD-1 and PD-L1 that compete with the membrane forms of these molecules. The exact role of these soluble molecules in the immune response has not been studied sufficiently. The importance of sPD-1 and sPD-L1 studies in various malignant tumors, their potential role in the diagnostics, disease prognosis, assessment of the efficiency of immunotherapy, and their potential implications as immune response modulating drugs are discussed. The data on the value of sPD-L1 and sPD-1 in various pathologies are shown to be still few and controversial. However, several independent investigations have demonstrated an increased level of sPD-L1 in peripheral blood of non-small cell lung cancer patients as compared to control, and negative prognostic value of high sPD-L1 level in relation to patients’ overall survival was revealed. Studies of soluble forms of PD-1 and PD-L1 in other nosologic forms of tumors require further thorough investigation.
Keywords: 
cancer, membrane-bound PD-1, membrane-bound PD-L1, soluble PD-1, soluble PD-L1

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