A.K. Martusevich Privozhsky Research Medical University, Minin sq., 10/1, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation E-mail: [email protected]

The purpose of this review is a systematic analysis of data from clinical observations, international experience, and reviews related to the pathogenetic aspects of the impact of a new coronavirus infection on the blood system. Information was searched in MedLine, PubMed, and RSCI databases. A brief description of the etiological agent with a detailed analysis of the structure of this virus is given. The features and mechanisms of immunological shifts induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection are analyzed. Hematological and metabolic changes in the blood of COVID-19 patients are presented and described. The reaction of erythron to the development of a new coronavirus infection was evaluated from pathogenetic and clinical positions. In whole, the agent of a new coronavirus infection was shown in patients to have a multifaceted negative effect on the blood system, which is reflected in the dysfunction of the immune system (predominantly cellular) with the formation of a special syndrome termed as «cytokine storm», a hypercoagulable state until the development of disseminated intravascular coagulation, as well as reducing the absolute number of all formed elements of blood. Understanding the mechanisms of development of these shifts creates opportunities for delivering new technologies for targeted therapy.
SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, pathogenesis, pathogenic therapy, review

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