T.I. Khomyakova(1), M.N. Tereshin(2, R.S. Esipov2, A.D. Magomedova1, G.V. Kozlovskaya1, Yu.E. Kozlovsky1, Yu.N. Khomyakov3 1-Scientific Research Institute of Human Morphology, Tsyurupy str., 3, Moscow, 117418, Russian Federation; 2-M.M. Shemyakin and Yu. A. Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Miklukho-Maklaya str., 16/10, bld. 1, Moscow, 117437, Russian Federation; 3-Anti-Plague control center, Musorgskogo str., 4, Moscow, 127490, Russian Federation E-mail: [email protected]

Communities of microorganisms are a set of species that interact with each other and occupy the same niche where competitive or mutually beneficial relationships can occur. Biofilms are only one of many types of microbial communities, the study of which has become relevant in the last twenty years. A particular problem is the increase of antibiotic resistance of bacteria during their transition from a plankton lifestyle to a biofilm. The purpose of this review is to analyze current trends in the study of the mechanisms of biofilm formation, intercellular interaction in the formation of multicellular bacterial aggregates, primary adhesion, the relationship of bacteria in mature biofilms, the dispersion of them and distribution in the body. Data on the role of quorum sensing, G-proteins, and micro-RNA in the life cycle of biofilms are presented. The main components of the extracellular matrix are described at the molecular level, their production by microorganisms is presented. A separate chapter describes the results of the authors’ research on the development of effective probiotic bacteria capable to form biofilms on the walls of the colon mucosa. There is a proposed method for screening strains of potential probiotics as potential protectors and inhibitors of biofilm formation by competitive interaction with pathogens at the resulting adhesion sites.
biofilm, probiotics, multicellular bacterial aggregates, extracellular matrix, G-proteins, bacterial microRNAs

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