МОЛЕКУЛЯРНАЯ БИОЛОГИЯ ГЛИОМ НИЗКОЙ СТЕПЕНИ ЗЛОКАЧЕСТВЕННОСТИ У ДЕТЕЙ

DOI: https://doi.org/None

К.Е. Борисов, кандидат медицинских наук, Д.Д. Сакаева, доктор медицинских наук ГУЗ Республиканский клинический онкологический диспансер Минздрава Республики Башкортостан, 450054, Российская Федерация, Уфа, проспект Октября, 73/1 E-mail: konstantin9671@rambler.ru

В литературном обзоре рассмотрены вопросы молекулярной биологии глиом низкой степени злокачественности у детей и подростков. Представлены данные о характерных генных аберрациях при пилоцитарной астроцитоме, плеоморфной ксантоастроцитоме, субэпендимарной гигантоклеточной астроцитоме и ганглиоглиоме, о частоте и прогностической значимости различных мутаций. У младенцев до 1 года частота глиом низкой степени злокачественности составляет 67%, локализуются они обычно в больших полушариях; у детей от 1 года до 5 лет – соответственно 86% при преимущественно инфратенториальной локализации. Дупликация гена BRAF на хромосоме 7q34 характерна для пилоцитарной астроцитомы и в большинстве случаев ассоциирована с благоприятным прогнозом. Активирующие мутации BRAF более характерны для плеоморфной ксантоастроцитомы, ганглиоглиомы и пилоцитарной астроцитомы с внемозжечковой локализацией и обладают негативной прогностической значимостью. Ведущим звеном патогенеза субэпендимарной гигантоклеточной астроцитомы является нарушение в mTORсигнальном каскаде. Исследование генетических изменений при глиомах у детей может содействовать разработке новых подходов в лечении, направленных на молекулярные мишени, что способствует индивидуализации противоопухолевой терапии.
Ключевые слова: 
глиомы низкой степени злокачественности, дети, молекулярная биология

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