НЕЙРОПЕПТИД ГАЛАНИН: РОЛЬ В РЕГУЛЯЦИИ БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ФУНКЦИЙ ОРГАНИЗМА ЧЕЛОВЕКА В НОРМЕ И ПРИ ПАТОЛОГИИ

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/24999490-2018-03-01

Р.Г. Гатаулин, О.М. Веселова, кандидат биологических наук, О.И. Писаренко, доктор биологических наук ФГБУ «НМИЦ кардиологии» Минздрава России, Российская Федерация, 121552, Москва, 3-я Черепковская ул., д. 15А E-mail: placespecial@yandex.ru

Нейропептид галанин (Гал) определяется в центральной и периферической нервной системе, а также в других органах и тканях животных и человека. Широкий спектр его биологической активности связан с активацией или ингибированием специфических рецепторов – GalR1, GalR2 и GalR3. Однако роль галанинергической системы в регуляции жизненно важных защитных функций организма остается недостаточно исследованной. В настоящем обзоре рассматривается экспрессия Гал при физиологических и патофизиологических процессах, обсуждается его регуляторная роль в сердечно-сосудистой системе, при высвобождении проинсулина из β-клеток поджелудочной железы, участие в реакциях воспаления и пищевом поведении. Приведены экспериментальные данные, указывающие на возможность использования рецепторов Гал в качестве мишеней для коррекции кардиометаболических нарушений. Они свидетельствуют о том, что механизмы внутриклеточной защиты сердца от ишемического и реперфузионного стресса, которые используют Гал и его биоактивные фрагменты, могут быть практически значимым направлением в изучении биологических свойств этого пептида.
Ключевые слова: 
галанин, рецепторы галанина, сердечно-сосудистая система, артериальная гипертензия, ишемия миокарда, сахарный диабет, центральная нервная система

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