МЕЛАТОНИН И ЦИРКАДНЫЕ РИТМЫ В СИСТЕМЕ МАТЬ–ПЛАЦЕНТА–ПЛОД

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/24999490-2018-06-02

И.И. Евсюкова, доктор медицинских наук, профессор, И.М. Кветной, доктор медицинских наук, профессор ФГБУ «НИИ акушерства, гинекологии и репродуктологии им. Д.О. Отта», Российская Федерация, 199034, Санкт-Петербург, Менделеевская линия, д. 3 Е-mail: eevs@yandex.ru

В обзоре представлены данные литературы о структуре циркадной осцилляторной системы организма и роли мелатонина в синхронизации эндогенных ритмов относительно суточных ритмов окружающей среды, что обеспечивает нормальное течение беременности и реализацию генетической программы развития плаценты и плода. Показано, что плацентарный мелатонин благодаря паракринным, аутокринным и интракринным механизмам обеспечивает морфологическое развитие и стабильность плацентарной функции, чему способствует и циркадная экспрессия clock-генов плаценты, согласованная с ритмом изменений материнского мелатонина. Приведены результаты экспериментальных и клинических исследований, которые показывают, что во время внутриутробной жизни ритмическая экспрессия clock-генов супрахиазматических ядер гипоталамуса (СХЯ) и органов плода запускается и зависит от состояния циркадной организации жизнедеятельности материнского организма и основного мессенджера биоритмов, генерируемых СХЯ, – мелатонина. Это определяет тесное единство системы мать–плацента–плод и обеспечивает постнатальную интеграцию эндогенных биоритмов функциональных систем ребенка в циркадную систему, подобную таковой у взрослых, регулируемую собственными СХЯ в зависимости от циркадных изменений освещенности окружающей среды. Нарушение циркадной продукции мелатонина у беременной отражается на становлении ритмической активности специфических генов плода и определяет программирование отдаленной патологии у потомства.
Ключевые слова: 
беременность, плацента, плод, новорожденный

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