Эпигенетическая регуляция обратного транспорта холестерина: роль микроРНК

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/24999490-2019-02-03

К.А. Айтбаев(1), доктор медицинских наук, профессор, Р.Р. Тухватшин(2), доктор медицинских наук, профессор, В.В. Фомин(3), доктор медицинских наук, профессор, член-корреспондент РАН, И.Т. Муркамилов(2, 4), кандидат медицинских наук, и.о. доцента, М.Т. Талайбеков(4), аспирант 1-Научно-исследовательский институт молекулярной биологии и медицины, Кыргызстан, 720040, Бишкек, ул. Т. Молдо, д. 3; 2-Кыргызская государственная медицинская академия им. И.К. Ахунбаева, Кыргызстан, 720020, Бишкек, ул. Ахунбаева, д. 92; 3-ФГБОУ ВО «Первый Московский государственный медицинский университет им. И.М.Сеченова» Минздрава России (Сеченовский университет), Российская Федерация, 119991, Москва, ул. Трубецкая, 8, стр. 2; 4-ГОУ ВПО «Кыргызско-Российский Славянский университет им. первого Президента России Б.Н. Ельцина», Кыргызстан, 720000, Бишкек, ул. Киевская, д. 44 E-mail: murkamilov.i@mail.ru

МикроРНК представляют собой группу небольших некодирующих молекул РНК, которые регулируют гены-мишени на посттранскрипционном уровне. МикроРНК участвуют в регуляции множества патофизиологических процессов, включая и дислипидемию – основной фактор риска развития атеросклероза. Современные данные свидетельствуют о том, что микроРНК являются новым классом эпигенетических регуляторов, который осуществляет регуляцию метаболизма холестерина (ХС) липопротеидов высокой плотности (ЛПВП), что вносит значительный вклад в патофизиологию атеросклероза. Накопленные данные свидетельствуют, что микроРНК, в частности miR-33, miR-27, miR-144, miR-758 и miR-20, участвуют в посттранскрипционном контроле сети регуляторных генов обратного транспорта холестерина (ОТХ) – ABCA1, ABCG1 и SCARB1. Было показано, что эти микроРНК являются центральными игроками в нарушении пути ОТХ, ведущего к развитию атеросклероза. В данной статье представлены новейшие данные, касающиеся участия микроРНК на разных этапах как метаболизма ЛПВП, так и пути ОТХ. Обсуждаются также некоторые из ограничений, касающихся терапевтического потенциала микроРНК, и перспективы перевода в клиническую плоскость результатов экспериментальных исследований по их участию в регуляции ОТХ.
Ключевые слова: 
эпигенетика, микроРНК, атеросклероз

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