INFLAMAGING – МОЛЕКУЛЯРНО-КЛЕТОЧНЫЕ МЕХАНИЗМЫ СТАРЕНИЯ ЖЕНСКОЙ РЕПРОДУКТИВНОЙ СИСТЕМЫ

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/24999490-2019-03-02

В.Р. Родичкина(1), И.М. Кветной(2, 3), доктор медицинских наук, профессор, В.О. Полякова(2, 3, 4), доктор биологических наук, профессор РАН 1-АННО ВО НИЦ «Санкт-Петербургский институт биорегуляции и геронтологии» СЗО РАН, Российская Федерация, 197110, Санкт-Петербург, пр. Динамо, д. 3; 2-ФГБНУ «НИИ акушерства, гинекологии и репродуктологии им. Д.О. Отта», Российская Федерация, 199034, Санкт-Петербург, Менделеевская линия, д. 3; 3-ФГБОУ ВО «Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет», Российская Федерация, 199034, Санкт-Петербург, Университетская набережная, д. 7–9; 4-Санкт-Петербургский медико-социальный институт, Российская Федерация, 195271, Санкт-Петербург, Кондратьевский пр., д. 72А E-mail: rolerus@mail.ru

Старение – сложный биологический процесс, основным аспектом которого является накопление соматических изменений в организме в течение жизни. Поздний репродуктивный возраст ассоциирован с бесплодием и возможными осложнениями наступления и течения беременности. Старение на клеточном и органном уровнях негативно влияет на репродуктивную функцию. Доказано, что иммунные клетки играют ключевую роль в функционировании репродуктивной системы, наступлении и течении беременности. Стареющие клетки экспрессируют провоспалительные цитокины, факторы роста и матриксные металлопротеиназы, которые в совокупности называются ассоциированным со старением секреторным фенотипом (SASP). Такие клетки жизнеспособны in vitro – в отличие от апоптотических клеток, которые подвергаются запрограммированной клеточной гибели. В 2014 г. C. Franceschi предложен новый термин «inflamaging» (инфламэйджинг), который характеризует хронический, слабовыраженный воспалительный процесс в разных органах при их старческой инволюции, протекающий бессимптомно и являющийся деструктивным для организма. По основным признакам инфламэйджинг значительно отличается от острого воспаления. Наиболее изученными маркерами иммунологического старения являются NF-κB, интерлейкины (ИЛ) 1, 6, 18, фактор некроза опухоли-α (TNFα). В настоящем обзоре рассматривается влияние клеточного, «воспалительного» и иммунного старения на репродуктивную функцию женщин.
Ключевые слова: 
старение

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