РОЛЬ МОЗГОВОГО НЕЙРОТРОФИЧЕСКОГО ФАКТОРА В ПАТОГЕНЕЗЕ ДЕПРЕССИВНЫХ РАССТРОЙСТВ

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/24999490-2021-03-02

И.И. Шепелева(1, 2), И.В. Чехонин(1), А.А. Чернышева(1), К.Ш. Кардашова(1), Е.В. Возняковская(1), О.И. Гурина(1), 1-ФГБУ «Национальный медицинский исследовательский центр психиатрии и наркологии имени В.П. Сербского» Минздрава Российской Федерации, Российская Федерация, 119034, Москва, Кропоткинский пер., д. 23; 2-ФГАОУ ВО «Российский национальный исследовательский медицинский университет им. Н.И. Пирогова» Минздрава России, Российская Федерация, 117997, Москва, ул. Островитянова, д. 1 E-mail: aachernysheva512@gmail.com

В настоящее время широкое распространение получила нейротрофическая гипотеза патогенеза депрессивных расстройств. Данный обзор затрагивает роль системы мозгового нейротрофического фактора (BDNF) в патогенезе депрессии и, в частности, большого депрессивного расстройства. Описаны структура гена BDNF, механизмы его экспрессии, особенности синтеза и процессинга BDNF, функциональными продуктами которого, помимо зрелой формы BDNF, являются pro-BDNF и pro-пептид BDNF. Обобщены сведения о сигнальных каскадах системы BDNF, их роли в поддержании долговременного синаптического потенцирования (зрелая форма BDNF) и долговременной депрессии (pro-BDNF). Исследования, суммированные в данном обзоре, включают не только клинические работы, но эксперименты, выполненные на животных моделях. Приведенные морфологические данные свидетельствуют о наличии связи между изменением BDNF-сигналинга при депрессии и дегенеративными изменениями в центральной нервной системе, в первую очередь, в гиппокампе и префронтальной коре. Среди механизмов развития депрессии упомянуты функциональные изменения рецепторов BDNF (TrkB и p75NTR), а также влияние полиморфизма гена BDNF. Терапевтическая часть обзора затрагивает влияние антидепрессантов на уровни BDNF, продуктов его процессинга и рецепторов в биологических средах, в первую очередь, сыворотке крови. Следует заключить, что молекулы системы BDNF в настоящее время являются не только объектом фундаментального изучения, но также имеют перспективы в установлении диагноза депрессивных расстройств, проведении дифференциальной диагностики, а также мониторинге лечения.
Ключевые слова: 
депрессия, биомаркеры

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