Роль аутоантител к белку GAD65 при неврологических заболеваниях

DOI: https://doi.org/10.29296/24999490-2020-01-01

А.Е. Ходова, Д.С. Поляков, кандидат медицинских наук ФГБНУ «Институт экспериментальной медицины», Российская Федеpация, 197376, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Академика Павлова, д. 12 E-mail: ravendoctor@mail.ru

Аутоантитела к глутаматдекарбоксилазе (изоформе GAD65) присутствуют в крови больных сахарным диабетом типа 1 (СД1), а также в крови пациентов с относительно редкими неврологическими болезнями, такими как синдром мышечной скованности и мозжечковая атаксия и др. Если рассматривать в отдельности каждую нозологическую единицу, то не у всех больных имеется аутоиммунный компонент, в частности, срыв иммунной толерантности к GAD65. Число неврологических больных, у которых обнаруживаются антитела к GAD65, приближается к 100% только при синдроме мышечной скованности, а при других рассмотренных в обзоре болезнях этот процент значительно ниже или вовсе неизвестен. С другой стороны, далеко не у всех людей с антителами к GAD65 обнаружен СД и(или) синдром мышечной скованности. Интересно, что в настоящее время нет четкого понимания механизма, как именно появление аутоантител к GAD65 связано с развитием клинических проявлений. В обзоре приведены известные литературные данные о наличии аутоантител к белку GAD65 при различных неврологических заболеваниях. Обсуждается возможная роль указанных аутоантител в патологическом процессе. Рассматривается потенциал использования аутоантител к GAD65 в качестве маркера того или иного неврологического заболевания.
Ключевые слова: 
антитела

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